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Master Spanish Conditionals Through Pop Music

Conditionals: they can give a headache to even the most steadfast of Spanish learners. Conditional constructions describe hypothetical or impossible events, and often begin with the word, si (“if”). Here’s an example: If I had to pick the trickiest part of Spanish grammar, I would choose the conditional. Sadly, we live in a world of “ifs”, and you can’t get by very long speaking Spanish if you avoid all conditional constructions. But luckily, Spanish music is here to help you: there are plenty of songs that use conditionals, and can help you sneak in some extra practice. In this article, we’ll check out two of them from the Spanish speaking world. One of them is from Argentina!.

Can Learning Spanish Feel Like Sex, Gambling, And Chocolate?

What is the link between gambling, chocolate, sex and…learning Spanish? You might be surprised to hear that the same part of the brain’s reward centre activates in response to all four stimuli, but that’s what scientists in Barcelona recently discovered. Participants in an experiment were encouraged to decipher new words in a foreign language whilst experts measured the chemicals in their brains. The results lead scientists to claim that those who felt more rewarded from learning new words were able to learn more. In other words, participants who naturally feel good when they learn, are more likely to learn more!

6 Ways To Turn Your Vacation Into A Spanish Learning Venture

Traveling to a Spanish speaking country has always been the single biggest motivator to Spanish students; in fact, it’s perhaps the only reason most of us decided to even start learning the language. After all, what good is a language skill if you never wish to be where it’s spoken! It’s a shame how so many of us consider it a divine right, as English speakers, to be understood everywhere we go, be it Mexico, Mongolia or even Mars. Now, traveling abroad is a costly affair and not all are lucky enough to make it. But what if you are? Well, then you really are lucky since one such trip can accelerate your Spanish learning like nothing else can.

6 Alien-Sounding Spanish Verbs In An Instant

Etymology is an incredibly wonderful tool when it comes to acquiring new words. Dig deep enough into the history of any language and words that seemed utterly alien and unrelated until now suddenly start to appear familiar. This works best when the language in question shares genetics with your native tongue. Fortunately, Spanish and English share a stronger ancestral bond than many acknowledge, which makes learning new words easier than it seems. Let’s see how etymological mapping can help us learn some of the most commonly used Spanish verbs that, on face value, seem to have little semblance with their English meanings.

Easy Trick To Learn The Spanish For Your Clothes

You could be out on vacation shopping for some items of clothing in a Spanish-speaking country or perhaps you just want to flaunt your Spanish to a bunch of native speakers. No matter what your motivation, learning to name what you wear everyday in Spanish is a cool skill to have. And, if you know the right way to learn, it should take you no more than a few minutes to conquer them all and reproduce them “on the fly” without having to fiddle with mental translations. If cramming up words after words is your forte, we’d recommend saving that skill for something harder as this one calls for hardly any efforts on your part!

Easy Spanish – 1,000 Words Is All It Takes!

Learning Spanish doesn’t have to be an ordeal if the right resources are employed at the right time in the right manner. While we have discussed the various tricks of acquiring new vocabulary in the past, it’s high time we discussed the size of vocabulary required for a desirable outcome. How many Spanish words must one master in order to get reasonably comfortable with the language? How many words before one can start discussing their hobbies with a native speaker? How many words before one can open that Spanish novel for easy reading? How many words before one can pick up an El Universal® and actually absorb some news?

Let’s attempt to answer all these questions and more here. In essence, it all boils down to the number of Spanish words one must be thoroughly acquainted with in order to achieve a certain level of proficiency in the language. But before we venture into the complex world of “word-frequency”, we need to understand a few definitions.

What is a word?

Just a string of letters? Well, yes and no. Of course any meaningful string of letters is a word by definition but for the purpose of our discussion we need to establish which words count and which don’t. Some linguists use the term, “lexemes” to define this situation. We, in keeping with our undying principle of jargon-free simplicity, stick to “words”.

A small Spanish vocabulary is enough for most purposes
A small Spanish vocabulary is enough for most purposes
Photo credit: Jennifer Morton licensed CC BY-ND 2.0
Let’s say, someone told you that “walk” is an essential word to learn in English. It’s a simple word at a glance and extremely easy to almost overlook the fact that this simple word is as much a verb as it is a noun? So, which “walk” is important? The act of moving at a slow but steady pace with never having both feet off the ground simultaneously (“I’m walking toward the bus”)? Or, the very foot-excursion itself (“It’s a short walk from here”)?

Here, even though there might be one word for both scenarios, there’s a well-defined difference in their usage and they may or may not have the same equivalent in another language. They carry different senses. For the purpose of this discussion, they are two different words despite their exactly similar spellings – walk, the verb and walk, the noun. The word, “walk” in two different scenarios is technically said to be two different “lexemes”.

Similarly, let’s take “walk”, the verb. Does that just imply the form, “walk”? Or, does it also include “walked”, “walks”, etc.? Strictly speaking, they are all different words and yet the same lexeme, “walk”. So, for the sake of simplicity here, when we call a verb like “walk” essential to basic vocabulary, we would inherently include all its forms across tenses, moods, genders, and persons as a single unit – a single word.

Now that we have established what the idea of a word is in this context, we should be comfortable enough to start exploring exactly how many of them is essential to a reasonable proficiency in the Spanish language.

The bare-essential Spanish vocabulary

Spoken Spanish needs far fewer words than you think!
Spoken Spanish needs far fewer words than you think!
Photo credit: rain city licensed CC BY-ND 2.0
Many linguists, over the past several decades, have tried to perform extremely intensive studies around the subject of “word-frequency” with several languages. While the final results of these studies have mostly been varied and subjective, they have all confirmed one idea that should matter the most to language learners – that 20% of the vocabulary roughly accounts for 80% of all communication in that language, give or take. That’s good news!

One of the most credible and heavily referenced studies was conducted by Mark Davies, a linguistics professor at Brigham Young University in 2005. Davies holds a bachelor’s with double major in Spanish language and linguistics, a master’s in Spanish linguistics, and a doctorate in Iberoromance philology and linguistics! No wonder he is quite an authority when it comes to languages, Spanish in particular.

The study in question was concluded in a paper titled, “Selected Proceedings of the 7th Hispanic Linguistics Symposium.” Here’s a gist of what it concludes on the size of one’s Spanish vocabulary (as a count of highest-frequency words in the language) and its benefits:

  • 1,000 – A vocabulary of this size should let you make sense of around 77% of all written and close to 90% of all verbal communications.

  • 2,000 – This vocabulary should let you catch roughly 85% of all written and 93% of spoken Spanish.

  • 3,000 – This should easily get you close to 90% of all written and 94% of spoken Spanish.

Cool, isn’t it? Just 3,000 words and you’re almost there! Of course, these are just theoretical numbers and real-life proficiency would pose many more issues, rate of speech and accent being a couple of them, than just a knowledge of a few thousand Spanish words. But they are inspiring nonetheless. You may need to ask the speaker to slow down or even pause and explain certain constructs to you – you can still hold a decent conversation that only gets better with time and practice!

Like discussed earlier, words in this context are not just words in the traditional sense. They are ideas as represented by lexeme. So, if ir (to go) is listed as an essential Spanish word, conjugated forms (voy, va, etc.) are also automatically implied. Well, this still sounds like a bargain, doesn’t it? Imagine being able to understand almost 90% of all street speech armed with just 1,000 Spanish words!

The conclusions above can be further simplified for the layman as below:

  • 250 words – The core of Spanish; the bare-essential in order for you to construct basic sentences

  • 750 words – The inventory of regular street speech amongst native speakers

  • 2,500 words – Enough for you to express almost anything in fits and starts

  • 5,000 words – The active inventory of the average native speaker with no higher education

  • 10,000 words – The active inventory of the average native speaker with reasonable academic qualifications

  • 20,000 words – Ample to get you through bodies of literary works by recognized Spanish language authors

This should give you a fair picture of what your individual goal needs to be in terms of Spanish vocabulary acquisition. Life’s always a whole lot easier when goals are condensed into palatable numbers.

Spanish vocabulary: A balanced diet

Spanish vocabulary, like that of any other language, is a collection of nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs (also conjunctions, etc.). Hence, while it’s easy to say you need to acquire 1,000 words, it’s far more important to ensure those 1,000 words include a fair mix of each of these groups. Just like a healthy diet should have an optimal balance of proteins, carbs, and fats, a healthy vocabulary must have a fair balance of nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs too.

Let’s say you’re gunning for a 90% cover with an inventory of around 3,000 words. The study by Davies suggests that you break it down as roughly:

  • 2,040 nouns (68%),

  • 780 adjectives (25%),

  • 180 verbs (6%), and

  • 40 adverbs (1%)

Do remember, though, that for each of the 180 verbs you are also expected to know every possible conjugation in order to be proficient in the language. Similarly, for each of the 2,040 nouns, it’s a given that you also include the feminine, the masculine, the plural, and the singular forms without counting them as separate “words”.

If you scour through Google®, it’s easy to find several resources giving ready-made lists of top 1,000 or top 2,000 high-frequency words in Spanish which you can add to your flashcard decks for review and recall. One such list is available for free download along with a free email subscription to Always Spanish (check the blue subscription box in the sidebar section to the left). Do remember, however, to not just memorize these lists word-by-word. It’s strongly advisable to learn new words “in context”.

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